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WITH RESPECT TO NEW STREETS AND BUILDINGS,

In the Urban Sanitary District of Rishton.

Interpretation of Terms

1. In the construction of the bye-laws relating to new streets and buildings, the following words and expressions shall have the meanings hereinafter respectively assigned to them, unless such meanings be repugnant to or inconsistent with the context or subject matter in which such words or expressions occur; that is to say:—"The Sanitary Authority" means the Local Board for the district of Rishton, in the County of Lancaster, acting as the Urban Sanitary Authority. "The District" means the Local Government District of Rishton.

"Base" applied to a wall means the under side of the course immediately above the footings:

"Topmost storey" means the uppermost storey in a building, whether constructed wholly or partly in the roof or not, and whether used or constructed or adapted for human habitation or not:

"Party wall" means:

(a) A wall forming part of a building and being used or constructed to be used in any part of the height or length of such wall for separation of adjoining buildings belonging to different owners or occupied or constructed or adapted to be occupied by different persons ; or

(b) A wall forming part of a building and standing, in any part of the length of such wall, to a greater extent thin the projection of the footings on one side on grounds of different owners

"External wall" means an outer wall of a building, not being a party wall, even though adjoining to a wall of another building:

"Public building" means a building used or constructed or adapted to be used, either ordinarily or occasionally, as a church, chapel, or other place of public worship, or as a hospital, workhouse, college, school (not being merely a dwell house so used), theatre, public hall, public concert room, public ballroom, public lecture room, or public exhibition room, or as a public place of assembly for persons admitted thereto, by tickets or otherwise, or used or constructed or adapted to be used, either ordinarily or occasion ally, for any other public purpose:

"Building of the warehouse class" means a warehouse, factory, manufactory, brewery or distillery:

"Domestic building" means a dwelling house or an office building, or other outbuilding appurtenant to a dwelling house, whether attached thereto or not, or a shop, or any other building, not being a public building, or of the ware house class:

"Dwelling-house" means a building used or constructed or adapted to be used wholly or principally for human habitation:

"Width," applied to a new street, means the whole extent of space intended to be used, or laid out so as to admit of being used as a public way, exclusive of any steps or projections therein, and measured at right angles to the course or direction or intended course or direction of such street.

Exempted Building’s.

2. The following buildings shall be exempt from the operation of the bye-laws relating to new streets and buildings

(a) Any building in Her Majesty’s possession, or employed or intended to be employed for Her Majesty’s use or service

(b) Any county lunatic asylum, any sessions house, or any other public building belonging to or wholly and permanently occupied by the justices of the peace of the county, in which such asylum, sessions house, or other public building may be situated or may be erected

(c) Any gaol, house of correction, bride penitentiary, or other prison, and any building occupied or intended to be occupied by any prison officer for the use of such prison and contiguous thereto

(d) Any building (not being a dwelling-house) belonging to any person or body at persons authorised by virtue of any Act of Parliament to navigate on or use any river, canal, dock, harbour, or basin, or to demand any toll or dues in respect of the navigation of such river or canal, or the use of such dock, harbour, or basin, and used or intended to be used exclusively under the provisions of such Act of Parliament for the purposes of such river, canal, dock, harbour, or basin.

(e) Any building (not being a dwelling-house) erected or intended to be erected in connexion with any mine, and used or intended to be used exclusively for the working of such mine.

(f) Any building erected or intended to be erected under the Improvement of land act 1864, or other Acts for the Improvement of Land administered by the Enclosure Commissioners for England and Wales:

(g) Any building which may not be exempt by the operation of any of the preceding clauses of this bye-law, and which may be erected or may be intended to be erected in accordance with such plan and in such manner as may be approved or directed in pursuance of any statutory provision in that behalf by one of Her Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State:

(h) Any building erected and used, or intended to be erected and used exclusively for the purpose of a plant-house, orchard- house, summer-house, poultry-house, or aviary, which shall be wholly detached, and at a distance of ten feet at the least from any other building, and which shall not be heated otherwise than by hot water, and in which the fire-place (if any) shall be detached with no flues of any kind within such plant-house, orchard-house, summer-house, poultry-house, or aviary:

(I) Any building which shall not exceed in height thirty feet as measured from the footings of the walls, and shall not exceed in extent one hundred and twenty-five thousand cubic feet, and shall not be a public building, and shall not be constructed or adapted to be used either wholly or partly for human habitation, or as a place of habitual employment for any person in any manufacture, trade or business, and shall be distant at least eight feet from the nearest street, and at least thirty feet from the nearest building and from the boundary of any adjoining lands or premises

(j) Any building which shall exceed in height thirty feet as measured from the footings of the walls, and shall exceed in extent one hundred and twenty-five thousand cubic feet, and shall not be a public building, and shall not be constructed or adapted to be used either wholly or partly for human habitation, or as a place of habitual employment for any person in any manufacture, trade, or business, and shall be distant at least thirty feet from the nearest street, and at least sixty feet from the nearest building, and from the boundary of any adjoining lands or premises

(k) Any building erected or intended to be erected for use solely as a temporary hospital for the reception and treatment of persons suffering from any dangerous infectious disorder.

WITH RESPECT TO THE LEVEL OF NEW STREETS

3. Every person who shall lay out a new street shall lay out such street at such level as will afford the easiest practicable gradients throughout the entire length of such street for the purpose of securing easy and convenient means of communication with any other street or intended street with which such new street may be connected or may be intended to be connected, and as will allow of compliance with the provisions of any statute or bye-law in force within the district for the regulation of new streets and buildings.

WITH RESPECT TO THE WIDTH AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW STREETS.

4. Every person who shall lay out a new street which shall be intended for use as a carriage-road shall so lay out such street that the width thereof shall be thirty-six feet at the least.

5. Every person who shall construct a new street which shall exceed one hundred feet in length shall construct such street for use as a carriage-road, and shall, as regards such street, comply with the requirements of every bye-law relating to a new street intended for use as a carriage-road.

6. Every person who shall lay out a new street which shall be intended for use otherwise than as a carriage-road, and shall not exceed in length one hundred feet, shall so lay out such street that the width thereof shall be twenty four feet at the least.

Provided always, that this bye-law shall not apply in any case where a new street shall not be intended to form the principal approach or means of access to any building, but shall be intended for use solely as a separate means of access to any premises for the purpose of removing there from the contents of the receptacle of any privy, or of any ash pit, or of any cesspool without carrying such contents through any dwelling house or public building or any building in which any person may be or may be intended to be employed in any manufacture, trade, or business.

7. Every person who shall construct a new street for use as a carriage road shall comply with the following requirements:-

(a) He shall construct the carriage-way of such street so that the width thereof shall be twenty four feet at the least.

(b) He shall construct the surface of the carriage way of such Street so as to curve or fall from the centre or crown of such carriage-way to the channels at the sides thereof; the height of the crown of such carriage-way above the level of the side channels being calculated at the rate of not less than three-eights of an inch, and not more than three fourths of an inch for every foot of the width of such carriage-way.

(c) He shall construct on each side of such street a footway of a width of not less than one-sixth of the entire width of such street.

(d) He shall construct each foot in such street so as to slope or fall towards the kerb or outer edge at the rate of one half an inch in every foot of width, if the footway be not paved, flagged, or asphalted; and at the rate of not less than a quarter of an inch, and not more than one half of an inch in every foot of width, if the footway be paved, flagged, or asphalted.

(e) He shall construct each footway in such street so that the height of the kerb or outer edge of each foot above the channel of the carriage way (except in the case of crossings paved or otherwise formed for the use of foot passengers) shall not be less than three inches at the highest part of such channel, and not more than seven inches at the lowest part of such channel.

8. Every person who shall construct a new street shall provide at one end, at least, of such street an entrance of a width equal to the width of such street, and open from the ground upwards.

With respect to the structure of walls, foundations, roofs, and chimneys of new buildings for securing stability and prevention of fires, and for purposes of health.

9. A person who shall erect a new building shall not construct any foundation of such building upon any site which shall have been filled up with any material impregnated with foecal matter, or impregnated with any animal or vegetable matter, or upon which any such matter may have been deposited, unless and until such matter shall have been properly removed, by excavation or otherwise, from such site.

10. Every person who shall erect a new domestic building shall cause the whole ground surface or site of such building to be properly asphalted or covered with a layer of good cement concrete, rammed solid, at least six inches thick.

11. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause such building to be enclosed with walls constructed of good bricks, stone, or other hard and incombustible materials, properly bonded and solidly put together.

(a) With good mortar compounded of good lime and clean sharp sand, or other suitable material; or

(b) With good cement; or

(c) With good cement mixed with clean sharp sand.

Provided always that such - person may construct any external wall of such building as a hollow wall, if such wall be constructed in accordance with the following rules:

(a) The inner and outer parts of the wall shall be separated by a cavity which shall throughout be of a width not exceeding three inches.

(b) The inner and outer parts of the wall shall be securely tied together with suitable bonding ties of adequate strength, formed of galvanized iron, or iron tarred and sanded, or of glazed stoneware. Such ties shall be placed at distances apart not exceeding three feet horizontally and eighteen inches vertically.

(c) The thickness of each part of the wall shall throughout be not less than 4 inches.

(ii) The aggregate thickness of the two parts, excluding the width of the cavity, shall throughout be not less than the minimum thickness prescribed by the bye-law in that behalf for an external wall of the same height and length, and belonging to the same class of building as that to which the hollow wall belongs.

(e) All woodwork which may be intended to form the head of a door frame, lintel or other similar structure, and may be inserted in the wall so as to project into or extend across the intervening cavity, shall be covered throughout on the upper side thereof with a layer of sheet lead or other suitable material, impervious to moisture, in such a manner as effectually to protect such wood work from any moisture that may enter the cavity.

12. Every person who shall erect a new building shall construct every cross wall, which, in pursuance of the bye-law in that behalf may, as a return wall, be deemed a means of deter mining the length of any external wall or party wall of such building, of good bricks, stone, or other hard and incombustible materials properly bonded and solidly put together:

(a) With good mortar compounded of good lime and clean sharp sand, or other suitable material; or

(b) With good cement; or

(c) With good cement mixed with clean sharp sand.

13. A person who shall erect a new building shall not construct any wall of such building so that any part of such wall not being a projection intended solely for the purposes of architectural ornament, or a properly constructed corbel, shall over hang any part beneath it.

14. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause every wall of such building which may be built at an angle with another wall to be properly bonded therewith.

15. Every person who shall erect a new building shall construct every wall of such building so as to rest upon proper footings.

He shall cause the projection at the widest part of the footings of every wall, on each side of such wall, to be at least equal to one half of the thickness of such wall at its base, unless an ad joining wall interferes, in which case the projection may be omitted where that wall adjoins.

He shall also cause the diminution of the footings to be in regular offsets, or in one offset at the top of the footings, and he shall cause the height from the bottom of the footings to the base of the wall to be at least equal to two thirds of the thickness of the wall at its base.

16. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the footings of every wall of such building to rest on the solid ground, or upon a sufficient thickness of good concrete, or upon some solid and sufficient sub-structure, as a foundation.

17. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause every wall of such building to have a proper damp course of sheet lead, asphalt, or slates laid in cement, or of other durable material impervious to moisture, beneath the level of the lowest timbers, and at a height of not less than six inches above the surface of the ground adjoining such wall.

18. For the purposes of the bye-laws with respect to the structure of walls of new buildings, the measurement of height of storeys and of height and length of walls shall be determined by the following rules:

(I) The heights of storeys shall be measured as follows:

(a) The height of a topmost storey shall be measured from the level of the upper surface of the floor up to the level of the under side of the tie of the roof or other covering, or if there is no tie then up to the level of half the vertical height of the rafters or other support of the roof:

(b) The height of every storey, other than a topmost storey shall be measured from the level of the upper surface of the floor of the storey up to the level of the upper surface of the floor of the storey next above it.

(ii) The height of a wall shall be measured from the top of the footings to the highest part of the wall, or in the case of a gable, to half the height of a gable.

(iii) Walls shall be deemed to be divided into distinct lengths by return walls. The length of a wall shall be measured from the centre of one return wall to the centre of another, provided that the return walls are external walls, party walls, or cross walls, of the thickness prescribed by the bye-laws, and are bonded into the walls so deemed to be divided.

A wall shall not, for the purpose of this rule, be deemed a cross wall unless it is carried up to the top of the topmost storey, and unless in each storey the aggregate extent of the vertical faces or elevations of all the recesses and that f all the openings therein, taken together, shall not exceed one half of the whole extent of the vertical face or elevation of the wall in such storey.

19. Every person who shall erect a new domestic building shall construct every external wall and every party wall of such building in accordance with the following rules, and in every case the thickness prescribed shall be the minimum thickness of which any such wall may be constructed, and the several rules shall apply only to walls built of good bricks, not less than nine inches long, or of suitable stone, or other blocks of hard and incombustible substance, the beds or courses being horizontal.

Height up to 25 feet

(a) Where the wall does not exceed 25 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows

If the wall does not exceed 30 feet in length, and does not comprise more than two storeys, it shall be 9 inches thick for it whole height

If the wall exceeds 30 feet in length, or comprises more than two storeys, it shall be 13 inches thick below the topmost storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its height.

Height up to 30 feet

(b) Where the wall exceeds 25 feet but does not exceed 30 feet in height it shall be 13 inches thick below the topmost storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its height.

Height up to 40 feet

(c) Where the wall exceeds 30 feet but does not exceed 40 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows: -

If the wall does not exceed 35 feet in length it shall be 13 inches thick below the topmost storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its height:

If the wall exceeds 35 feet in length it shall be 18 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height below the topmost storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its height.

Height up to 50 ft

(d) Where the wall exceeds 40 feet but does not exceed 50 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows:

If the wall does not exceed 30 feet in length it shall be 18 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height below the topmost storey, and 9 inches thick for the rest of its height:

If the wall exceeds 30 feet but does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 18 inches thick for the height of two storeys, then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 18 inches thick for the height of the next storey, and then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height.

Height up to 60 ft

(e) Where the wall exceeds 50 feet but does not exceed 60 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows:-

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 18 inches thick for the height of two storeys and 13 inches thick for the rest of its height:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 18 inches thick for the height of the next two storeys, and then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height.

Height up to 70 ft

(f) Where the wall exceeds 6o feet but does not exceed 70 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows:

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 18 inches thick for the height of the next two storeys, and then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increased in thickness in each of the storeys below the uppermost two storeys by 4 inches (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers.)

Height up to 80 ft

(g) Where by the wall exceeds 70 feet but does not exceed 80 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows:

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 18 inches thick for the height of the next three storeys, and 13 inches thick for the rest of it height:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increased in thickness in each of the storeys below the uppermost two storeys by 4 inches (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers.)

Height up to 90 ft

(h) Where the wall exceeds 80 feet but does not exceed 90 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows:-

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 26 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 22 inches thick for the height of the next storey, then 18 inches thick for the height of the next three storeys, and then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increased in thickness in each of the storeys below the uppermost two storeys by 4 inches (subject to the provision herein after contained respecting distribution in piers.)

Height up to 100 ft

(I) Where the wall exceeds 90 feet but does not exceed 100 feet in height its thickness shall be as follows:-

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 26 inches thick for the height of one storey, then 22 inches thick for the height of the next two storeys, then 18 inches thick for the height of the next three storeys, and then 13 inches thick for the rest of its height:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increased in thickness in each of the storeys below the uppermost two storeys, by 4 inches (subject to the provision herein after contained respecting distribution in piers.)

(j) If any storey exceeds in height 16 times the thickness prescribed for its walls, the thickness of each external wall and of each party wall throughout that storey shall be increased to 1 16th part of the height of the storey, and the thickness of each external wall and of each party wall below that storey shall be proportionately increased (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers.)

(k) Every external wall and every party wall of any storey which exceeds 10 feet in height shall be not less than 13 inches in thickness.

(1) Where any of the foregoing rules relating to the thickness of external walls and party walls of domestic buildings an increase of thickness is required in the case of a wall exceeding 60 feet in height and 45 feet in length, or in the case of a storey exceeding in height 16 times the thickness prescribed for its walls, or in the case of a wall below that storey, the increased thickness may be confined to piers properly distributed, of which the collective widths amount to 1 4th part of the length of the wall. The width of the piers may nevertheless be reduced if the projection is proportionately increased, the horizontal sectional area not being diminished; but the projection of any such pier shall in no case exceed 1 3rd of its width.

20. Every person who shall erect a new public building or a new building of the warehouse class shall construct every external wall and every party wall of such building in accordance with the following rules; and in every case the thickness prescribed shall be the minimum thickness of which any such wall may be constructed, and the several rules shall apply only to walls built of good bricks, not less than 9 inches long, or of suitable stone or other blocks of hard and incombustible substance, the beds or courses being horizontal.

Height up to 25 ft

(a) Where the wall does not exceed 25 feet in height (whatever is its length) it shall be 13 inches thick at its base.

Height up to 30 ft

(b) Where the wall exceeds 25 feet but does not exceed 30 feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 13 inches thick at its base:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be 18 inches thick at its base.

Height up to 40 ft

(c) Where the wall exceeds 30 feet but does not exceed 40 feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:

If the wall does not exceed 35 feet in length it shall be 13 inches thick at its base:

If the wall exceeds 35 feet but does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 18 inches thick at its base

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick at its base.

Height up to 50 ft

(d) Where the wall exceeds 40 feet but does not exceed 50 feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:

If the wall does not exceed 30 feet in length it shall be 18 inches thick at its base:

If the wall exceeds 30 feet but does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick at its base

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be 26 inches thick at its base.

Height up to 60 ft

(e) Where the wall exceeds 50 feet but does not exceed 6o feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:-

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick at its base:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be 26 inches thick at its base.

Height up to 70 ft

(f) Where the wall exceeds 6o feet but does not exceed 70 feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:-

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick at its base:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increased in thickness from the base up to within 16 feet from the top of the wall by 4 inches (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers.)

Height up to 80 ft

(g) Where the wall exceeds 70 feet but does not exceed 80 feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:-

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 22 inches thick at its base:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increased in thickness from the base up to within 16 feet from the top of the wall by 4 inches (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers.)

Height up to 90 ft

(h) Where the wall exceeds 80 feet but does not exceed 90 feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:-

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 26 inches thick at its base:

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increase in thickness from the base up to within 16 feet from the top of the wall by 4 inches (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers.)

Height up to 100 ft

(I) Where the wall exceeds 90 feet but does not exceed 100 feet in height it shall be at its base of the thickness following:

If the wall does not exceed 45 feet in length it shall be 26 inches thick at its base

If the wall exceeds 45 feet in length it shall be increased in thickness from the base up to within 16 feet from the top of the wall by 4 inches (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers.)

(j) The thickness of the wall at the top, and for 16 feet below the top, shall be 13 inches, and the intermediate parts of the wall between the base and 16 feet below the top shall be built solid throughout the space between straight lines drawn on each side of the wall and joining the thickness at the base to the thickness at 16 feet below the top. Nevertheless, in walls not exceeding 30 feet in height the walls of the topmost storey may be 9 inches thick, provided the height of that storey does not exceed 10 feet.

(k) If any storey exceeds in height 14 times the thickness prescribed for its walls the thickness of each external wall and of each party wall throughout that storey shall be increased to 1 14th part of the height of the storey, and the thickness of each external wall and of each party wall below that storey shall be proportionally increased (subject to the provision hereinafter contained respecting distribution in piers).

(l) Every external wall and every party wall of any storey which exceeds 10 feet in height shall be not less than 13 inches in thickness.

(m) Where by any of the foregoing rules relating to the thickness of external walls and party building or buildings of the warehouse class an increase of thickness is required in the case of a wall exceeding 60 ft in height and 45 ft in length, or in the case of a storey exceeding in height 14 times the thickness prescribed for its walls, or in the case of a wall below that storey, the increased thickness may be confined to piers properly distributed, of which the collective widths amount to 1 4th part of the length of the wall. The width of the piers may nevertheless be reduced if the projection is proportionally increased, the horizontal sectional area not being diminished; but the projection of any such pier shall in no case exceed 1 3rd of its width.

21. Every person who shall erect a new building shall construct, in accordance with the following rules, every cross wall which, in pursuance of the bye law in that behalf, may, as a return wall be deemed a means of determining the length of any external wall or party wall of such building; and in every case the thickness prescribed shall be the minimum thickness of which any such wall may be constructed; and the several rules shall apply only to walls built of good bricks, not less than 9 inches long , or of a suitable stone or other blocks of hard and incombustible substance, the beds or courses being horizontal:-

The thickness of every such cross wall shall be at least 2 3rds of the thickness prescribed by the bye law in that behalf for an external wall or party wall of the same height and length and belonging to the same class of building as that to which such cross walls belongs, but shall in no case be less than 9 inches:-

But if such cross wall supports a superincumbent external wall the whole of such cross wall shall be of the thickness prescribed by the bye law in that behalf for an external wall or party wall of the same height and length belonging to the same class of building as that to which such cross wall belongs.

22. Every person who shall erect a new building and shall construct any external wall, party wall, or cross wall of such building of any material other than good bricks, not less than 9 inches long, or suitable stone or other blocks of hard and incombustible substance, the beds or courses being horizontal, shall comply with the following rules with respect to the thickness of such wall.

(a) Where a wall is built of stone or of clunches of bricks, or other burnt or vitrified material, the beds or courses not being horizontal, its thickness shall be 1 3rd greater than that pre scribed by the bye-law in that behalf for a wall built of bricks, but in other respects of the same description, height, and length, and belonging to the same class of building:

(b) A wall built of other suitable material shall be deemed to be of sufficient thickness if constructed of the thickness pre scribed by the bye-law in that behalf for a wall built of bricks, but in other respects of the same description, height and length, and belonging to the same class of building.

23. Every person who shall erect a new building and shall leave in any storey or storeys of such building an extent of opening in any external wall which shall be greater than one half of the whole extent of the vertical face or elevation of the wall or walls of the storey or storeys in which the opening is left shall construct-

(a) Sufficient piers of brickwork or other sufficient supports of incombustible material so disposed as to carry the super structure; and

(b) A sufficient pier or piers or other sufficient supports of that description at the corner or angle of any street on which the building abuts; or

(c) Such pier or other support in each wall within 3 feet of the corner or angle of the street.

24. Every person who shall erect a new building of the warehouse class shall cause every loophole frame of wood, that is to say, every framework of wood surrounding any door or window opening in any storey of such building for the reception or delivery of goods, to be fixed at a distance of not less than one inch and a half from the face of any external wall.

Subject to the foregoing provision, every person who shall erect a new building shall cause all woodwork in any external wall of such building (except any bressummer, or any storey post under a bressummer, and any frame of a door or window of a shop) to be set back in reveals 4 inches at least from the outer face of such wall.

25 Every person who shall erect a new building, shall cause such part of any external wall Of such building as is within a distance of 15 feet from any other building to be carried up so as to form a parapet one foot at least above the highest part of any roof or gutter which adjoins such part of such external wall, and he shall cause the thickness of the parapet so carried up to be at least 9 inches throughout.

26. Every person who shall erect a new building, shall cause every party wall of such building to be carried up 9 inches at the least in thickness-

(I.) Above the roof, flat, or gutter of the highest building adjoining thereto to such height as will give, in the case of a building of the warehouse class, or of a public building, a distance of at least 3 feet, and in the case of any other building, a distance of at least 15 inches measured at right angles to the slope of the roof; or above the highest part of any flat or gutter, as the case may be:

(ii) Above any turret, dormer, lantern light, or other erection of combustible materials fixed on the roof or flat of any building within 4 feet from the party wall, and so as to extend at least 12 inches higher and wider on each side than such erection:

(iii) To a height of 12 inches at the least above such part of any roof as is opposite to and within four feet from the party wall.

In every case where the eaves of the roof project beyond the face of the building, he shall cause every party wall of such building to be properly corbelled out, in brick work, or stone work, to the full extent of such projection, and to be carried up above the projecting eaves, 9 inches at the least in thickness, to such height as will give, in the case of a building of the warehouse class, or of a public building, a distance of at least 3 feet, and in the case of any other building, a distance of at least 15 inches measured at right angles to the slope of the roof.

27 Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause every wall of such building, when carried up above any roof, flat, or gutter, so as to form a parapet, to be properly coped or other wise protected, in order to prevent water from running down the sides of such parapet, or soaking into any wall.

28. A person who shall erect a new building shall not construct any party wall of such building so that any opening shall be made or left in such wall.

29. A person who shall erect a new building shall not make any recess in any external wall or party wall of such building:

(a) Unless the back of such recess be at the least 9 inches thick:

(b) Unless a sufficient arch be turned in every storey over every such recess;

(c) Unless in each storey the aggregate extent of recesses having backs of less thickness than the thickness prescribed by any bye-law in that behalf for the wall in which such recesses are made do not exceed one half of the extent of the vertical superfices of such wall;

(d) Unless the side of any such recess nearest to the inner face of any return external wail is distant at the least 13 inches there from.

30. A person who shall erect a new building shall not make in any wall of such building any chase which shall be wider than 14 inches or more than 454 inches deep from the face of such wall, or shall leave less than 9 inches in thickness at the back or opposite side thereof, or which shall be within 13 inches from any other chase, or within 7 feet from any other chase on the same side of such wall, or within 13 inches from any return wall.

31. A person who shall erect a new building shall not place in any party wall of such building any bond timber or any plate block, brick, or plug of wood.

32. A person who shall erect a new building shall not place the end of any bressummer, beam, or joist in any party wall of such building, unless the end of such bressummer, beam, or joist be at least 4 inches distant from the centre line of such party wall.

33. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause every girder to be borne by a sufficient template of stone, iron, terra-cotta, or vitrified stoneware of the full breadth of the girder.

34. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause, every bressummer to have a bearing in the direction of its length of 4 inches at least at each end, on a sufficient pier of brick or stone, or on a storey post of timber or iron fixed on a solid foundation, in addition to its bearing on any party wall; and

He shall also, if necessary cause such bressummer to have such other storey posts, iron columns, stanchions, or piers of brick or stone on a solid foundation under the same as may be sufficient to carry the superstructure.

35. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the open space inside any partition wall of such building, or between the joists in any wall of such building, to be stopped with brick work, concrete, pugging, or other incombustible material, at every floor and ceiling.

CHIMNEYS.

36. Every person who shall erect a new building, shall, except in such case as is hereinafter provided, cause every chimney of such building to be built on solid foundations and with footings similar to the footings of the wall against which such chimney is built, and to be properly bonded into such wall:

Provided, nevertheless, that such person may cause any chimney of such building to be built on sufficient corbels of brick, stone, or other hard and incombustible materials, if the work so corbelled out does not project from the wall more than the thickness of the wall measured immediately below the corbel.

37. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the inside of every flue of such building to be properly rendered or pargeted as such flue is carried up, unless the whole flue shall be lined with fireproof piping of stoneware at least 1 inch thick, and unless the sparndrill angles shall be filled in solid with brickwork or other incombustible material.

Such person shall also cause the back or outside of such flue, which shall not be constructed so as to form part of the outer face of any external wall, to be properly rendered in every case where the brickwork of which such back or outside may be constructed is less than 9 inches thick.

38. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause every flue in such building which may be intended for use in connexion with any furnace, cockle, steam boiler, or closefire, constructed for any purpose of trade, business or manufacture, or which may be intended for use in connexion with any cooking range or cooking apparatus of such building when occupied as a hotel, tavern, or eating to be surrounded with brickwork at least 9 inches thick for a distance of 10 feet at the least in height from the floor on which such furnace, cockle, steam-boiler close cooking range or cooking apparatus may be constructed or placed.

39. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause a sufficient arch of brick or stone, or a sufficient bar of wrought iron to be built over the opening of every chimney of such building to support the breast of such chimney; and if the breast projects more than 4 inches from the face of the wall, and the jamb on either side is less width than 13 inches, he shall cause the abutments to be tied in by a bar or bars of wrought iron of sufficient strength, 18 inches longer than the opening, turned up and down at the, ends, and built into the jambs at each side.

40. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the jambs of every chimney of such building to be at least 9 inches wide on each side of the opening of such chimney.

41. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the breast of every chimney of such building and the brickwork ‘or stonework surrounding every smoke flue and every copper flue of such building to be at least 4 inches in thickness.

42. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the back of any chimney opening in a party wall of any room which may be constructed for occupation as a kitchen to be at least 9 inches thick to the height of at least 6 feet above such chimney opening, and he shall cause such thickness to be continued at the back of the flue.

Such person shall cause the back of every other chimney opening in such building, from the hearth up to the height of 12 inches above such opening, to be at least 4 inches thick if such opening be in an external wall, and nine inches thick if such opening be elsewhere than in an external wall.

43. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the upper side of every flue of such building, when the course of such flue makes with the horizon an angle of less than 45 degrees, to be at least 9 inches in thickness.

44. Every person who shall erect a new building shall construct every arch, upon which any flue may be carried, so that such arch shall be effectually supported by means of a bar or bars of wrought iron of adequate strength.

He shall cause every such bar, to the extent of 4 inches, to be securely built or pinned into the wail at each end thereof.

He shall provide, for every 9 inches of the width of the soffit of such arch, one, at the least, of such bars as a means of support for such arch.

45. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause every chimney shaft or smoke flue of such building to be carried up in brickwork or stonework all round at least 4 inches thick to a height of not less than 3 feet above the roof, flat, or gutter adjoining thereto, measured at the highest point in the line of Junction with such roof, flat, or gutter.

46. A person who shall erect a new building shall not cause the brickwork or stonework of any chimney shaft of such building, other than a chimney shaft of the furnace of any steam engine, brewery, distillery, or manufactory, to be built higher above the roof, flat, or gutter adjoining such chimney shaft, measured from the highest point in the line of junction with such roof,, flat, or gutter, than a height equal to six times the least width of such chimney shaft at the level of such highest point, unless such chimney shaft shall be built with and bonded to another chimney shaft not in the same line with such first mentioned chimney shaft, or shall be otherwise made secure.

FOR PREVENTION OF FIRES.

47. A person who shall erect a new building shall not place any iron holdfast or other metal fastening nearer than 2 inches to the inside of any flue or chimney opening in such building.

48. A person who shall erect a new building shall not place any timber or woodwork:

(a) In any wall or chimney breast of such building nearer than 9 inches to the inside of any flue or chimney opening:

(b) Under any chimney opening of such building within 15 inches from the upper surface of the hearth thereof:

A person who shall erect a new building shall not drive any wooden plug into any wall or chimney breast of such building nearer than 6 inches to the inside of any flue or chimney opening.

49 Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the lace of the brickwork or stonework about any flue or chimney Opening of such building, where such face is at a distance of less than 2 inches from any timber or woodwork, and where the substance of such brickwork or stonework is less than 9 inches thick, to be properly rendered.

50. A person who shall erect a new building shall not construct any chimney or flue of such building so as to make or leave in such chimney or flue any opening for the insertion of any ventilating valve, or for any other purpose, unless such opening be at least 9 inches distant from any timber or other combustible substance.

51. A person who shall erect a new building shall not fix in such building any pipe for the purpose of conveying smoke or other products of combustion, unless such pipe be so fixed at the distance of 9 inches at the least from any combustible substance.

52. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the flat and roof of such building, and every turret, dormer, lantern light, sky-light, or other erection placed on the flat or roof of such building to be externally covered with slates, tiles, metal or other incombustible materials, except as regards any door, door frame, window or window frame of any such turret, dormer, lantern light, skylight or other erection.

He shall also cause every gutter, shoot, or trough in connexion with the roof of such building to be constructed of incombustible materials.

With respect to the sufficiency of the space about buildings to secure a free circulation of air, and with respect to the ventilation of buildings.

53. Every person who shall erect a new domestic building shall provide in front of such building an open space, which shall be free from any erection thereon above the level of the ground, except any portico, porch, step, or other like projection from such building, or any gate, fence, or wall, not exceeding 7 feet in height, and which, measured to the boundary of any lands or premises immediately opposite, or to the opposite side of any street which such building may front, shall, throughout the whole line of frontage of such building, extend to a distance of 24 feet at the least; such distance being measured in every case at right angles to the external face of any wall of such building which shall front or abut on such open space.

A person who shall make any alteration in or addition to such building shall not, by such alteration or addition, diminish the extent of open space provided in pursuance of this bye-law in connexion with such building.

54. Every person who shall erect a new domestic building shall provide in the rear of such building an open space exclusively belonging to such building, and of an aggregate extent of not less than 180 square feet, and free from any erection thereon above the level of the ground, except a water earth-closet, or privy and an ash-pit.

He shall cause such open space to extend, laterally, throughout the entire width of such building, and he shall cause the distance across such open space from every part of such building to the boundary of any lands or premises immediately opposite or adjoining the site of such building, to be not less in any case than 10 feet.

If the height of such building be 15 feet he shall cause such distance to be 20 feet at the least.

If the height of such building be 25 feet he shall cause such distance to be 20 feet at the least. If the height of such building be 35 feet or exceed 35 feet he shall cause such distance to be 25 feet at the least.

A person who shall make any alteration in or addition to such building shall not, by such alteration or addition, diminish the aggregate extent of open space provided in pursuance of this bye-law in connexion with such building or in any other respect fail to comply with any provision of this bye-law.

For the purpose of this bye-law the height of such building shall be measured upwards from the level of the ground over which such open space shall extend to the level of half the vertical height of the roof or to the top of the parapet, whichever may be the higher.

VENTILATION OF BUILDINGS.

55. Every person who shall erect a new domestic building shall construct in the wall of each storey of such building which shall immediately front or abut on such open spaces as, in pursuance of the bye-laws in that behalf, shall be provided in connexion with such building, a sufficient number of suitable windows, in such a manner and in such a position that each of such windows shall afford effectual means of ventilation by direct communication with the external air.

56. Every person who shall erect a new domestic building shall so construct every room which shall be situated in the lowest storey of such building, and shall be provided with a boarded floor, that there shall be, for the purpose of ventilation, between the under side of every joist on which such floor may be laid, and the upper surface of the asphalte or concrete with which, in pursuance of the bye-law in that behalf, the ground surface or site of such building may be covered, a clear space of 3 inches at the least in every part, and he shall cause such space to be thoroughly ventilated by means of suitable and sufficient air or by some other effectual method.

57. Every person who shall erect a new building shall construct in every habitable room of such building one window, at the least. Opening directly into the external air, and he shall cause the total area of such window, or, if there be more than one, of the several Windows, clear of the sash frames, to be equal at the least to 1-10th of the floor area of such room.

Such person shall also construct every such window so that one half at the least may be opened, and so that the opening may extend in every case to the top of the window.

58. Every person who shall erect a new domestic building shall cause every habitable room of such building which is without a fireplace, and a flue properly constructed and properly connected with such fireplace, to be provided with special and adequate means of ventilation by a sufficient aperture or air-shaft which shall provide an unobstructed sectional area of 100 square inches at the least.

59. Every person who shall erect a new public building shall cause such building to be provided with adequate means of ventilation.

With respect to the drainage of buildings.

60. Every person who shall erect a new building shall cause the subsoil of the site of such building to be effectually drained by means of suitable earthenware field pipes, properly laid to a suitable outfall, whenever the dampness of the site renders such a precaution necessary.

He shall not lay any such pipe in such a manner or in such a position as to communicate directly with any sewer or cesspool, or with any drain constructed or adapted to be used for conveying sewage, but shall provide a suitable trap, with a ventilating opening, at a point in the line of the subsoil drain as near as may be practicable to such trap.

61. Every person who shall erect a new building shall construct the lowest story of such building at such level as will allow of the construction of a drain sufficient for the effectual drainage of such building, and of the provision of the requisite communication with any sewer into which such drain may lawfully empty, at a point in the upper half diameter of such sewer, or with any other means of drainage with which such drain may lawfully communicate.

62. Every person who shall erect a new building shall, in the construction of every drain of such building, other than a drain constructed in pursuance of the bye-law in that behalf for the drainage of the subsoil of the site of such building, use good sound pipes formed of glazed stoneware, or of other equally suitable material.

He shall cause every such drain to be of adequate size, and, if constructed or adapted to be used for conveying sewage, to have an internal diameter not less than 4 inches, and to be laid in a bed of good concrete with a proper fall, and with watertight, socketed, or other suitable joints.

He shall not construct any such drain so as to pass under any building except in any case where any other mode of construction may be impracticable, and in that case he shall cause such drain to be so laid in the ground that there shall be a distance equal at the least to the full diameter thereof between the top of such drain at its highest point and the, surface of the ground under such building.

He shall also cause such drain to be laid in a direct line for the whole distance beneath such building, and to be completely embedded in and covered with good and solid concrete, at least 6 inches thick, all round.

He shall likewise cause adequate means of ventilation to be provided in connexion with such drain at each end of such portion thereof as is beneath such building.

He shall cause every inlet to any drain, not being an inlet provided in pursuance of the bye-law in that behalf as an opening for the ventilation of such drain, to be properly trapped.

63. Every person who shall erect a new building shall provide, within the curtilage thereof, in every main drain or other drain of such building which may directly communicate with any sewer or other means of drainage into which such drain may lawfully empty, a suitable trap at a point as distant as may be practicable from such building and as near as may be practicable to the point to which such drain may be connected with such sewer or other means of drainage.

64. A person who shall erect a new building shall not construct the several drains of such building in such a manner as to form in such drains any right junction, either vertical or horizontal He shall cause every branch drain or tributary drain to join another drain obliquely in the direction of the flow of such drain.

65. Every person who shall erect a new building shall, for the purpose of securing efficient ventilation of the drains of such building, comply with the following requirements:

(i) He shall provide at least two untrapped openings to the drains, and, in the provision of such openings, he shall adopt such of the two arrangements hereinafter specified as the circum stances of the case may render the more suitable and effectual.

(a) One opening, being at or near the level of the surface of the ground adjoining such opening, shall communicate with the drains by means of a suitable pipe, shaft, or disconnecting chamber, and shall be situated as near as may be practicable to the trap which,. in pursuance of the bye-law in that behalf, shall be provided be between the main drain or other drain of the building, and the sewer or other means of drainage with which such drain may lawfully communicate. Such opening shall also in every case be situated on that side of the trap which is the nearer to the building.

The second opening shall be obtained by carrying up from a point in the drains, as far distant as may be practicable from the Point at which the first mentioned opening shall be situated, a pipe or shaft, vertically to such a height and in such a manner as effectually to prevent any escape of foul air from such pipe or shaft into any building in the vicinity thereof, and in no case to less height than 10 feet.

(b) In every case where the foregoing arrangement of the openings to the drains may be impracticable, there shall be substituted the arrangement hereafter prescribed.

One opening shall be obtained by carrying up from a point, as near as may be practicable to the trap, which, in pursuance of the bye-law in that behalf, shall be provided between the main drain or other drain of the building, and the sewer or other means of drainage with which such drain may lawfully communicate, a pipe or shaft, vertically, to such a height and in such a manner as effectually to prevent any escape of foul air from such pipe or shaft into any building in the vicinity thereof, and in no case to a less height than 10 feet. Such opening shall also in every case be situated on that side of the trap which is the nearer to the building.

The second opening, being at a point in the drains as far distant as may be practicable from the point at which such last-mentioned pipe or shaft shall be carried up, shall be at or near the level of the surface of the ground adjoining such opening, and shall communicate with the drains by means of a suitable pipe or shaft.

(ii) He shall cause every opening provided in accordance with either of the arrangements hereinbefore specified to be furnished with a suitable grating or other suitable cover for the purpose of preventing any obstruction in or injury to any pipe or drain by the introduction of any substance through any such opening. He shall, in every case, cause such grating or cover to be so constructed and fitted as to secure the free passage of air through such grating or cover by means of a sufficient number of apertures, of which the aggregate extent shall be not less than the sectional area of the pipe or drain to which such grating or cover may be fitted.

(iii) Every pipe or shaft which may be used in connexion with either of the arrangements hereinbefore specified shall be of a sectional area not less than that of the drain with which such pipe or shaft may communicate, and not less in any case than the sectional area of a pipe or shaft of the diameter of inches.

(iv) No bend or angle shall (except where unavoidable) be formed in any pipe or shaft used in connexion with either of the arrangements hereinbefore specified.

(v) Provided always, that for the purpose of either of the arrangements hereinbefore specified the soil pipe of any water closet, in every case where the situation, sectional area, height, and mode of construction of such soil pipe shall be in accordance with the requirements applicable to the pipe or shaft to be carried up from the drains, may be deemed to provide the necessary opening for ventilation which would otherwise be obtained by means of such last-mentioned pipe or shaft.

66. A person who shall erect a new building shall not construct any drain of such building in such a manner as to allow any inlet to such drain (except such inlet as may be. necessary from the apparatus of any water closet) to be made within such building.

He shall cause the soil pipe from every water closet in such building to be at least 4 inches in diameter, and to be fixed out side such building, and to be continued upwards without diminution of its diameter, and (except where unavoidable) without any bend or angle being formed in such soil pipe to such a height and in such a position as to afford, by means of the open end of such soil pipe, a safe outlet for sewer air.

He shall construct such soil pipe that there shall not be any trap between such soil pipe and the drains, or any trap (other than such as may necessarily form part of the apparatus of any water- closet) in any part of such soil pipe.

He shall also cause the waste pipe from every bath, sink (not being a slop sink constructed or adapted to be used for receiving any solid or liquid filth) or lavatory, the overflow pipe from any cistern and from every safe under any bath or water closet, and every pipe in such building for carrying off waste water to be taken through an external wall of such building, and to discharge in the open air over a channel leading to a trapped gully grating at least 18 inches distant.

He shall, as regards the mode of construction of the waste pipe from any slop sink constructed or adapted to be used for receiving within such building any solid or liquid filth, comply in all respects with such of the provisions of this bye law as are applicable to the soil pipe from a water closet.

With respect to, water closets, earth closets, privies, ashpits, and cesspools in connexion with buildings.

67. Every person who shall construct a water closet or earth closet in a building shall construct such watercloset or earthcloset in such a position that one of its sides at the least shall be an external wall.

68. Every person who shall construct a watercloset or earth- closet in connexion with a building, whether the situation of such watercloset or earthcloset be or be not within such building, shall construct in one of the walls of such watercloset or earthcloset a window of not less dimensions than 2 feet by 1 foot, exclusive of the frame, and opening directly into the external air.

He shall, in addition to such window, cause such watercloset or eartencloset to be provided with adequate means of constant ventilation by at least one air-brick built in an external wail of such watercloset or earthcloset, or by an air shaft, or of some other effectual method or appliance.

69. Every person who, shall construct a watercloset in connexion with a building shall furnish such watercloset with a separate cistern, or flushing box of adequate capacity, which shall be so constructed, fitted, and placed as to admit of the supply of water for use in such watercloset without any direct connexion between any service pipe upon the premises and any part of the apparatus of such watercloset, other than such cistern, or flushing box.

He shall furnish such watercloset with a suitable apparatus for the effectual application of water to any pan, basin, or other receptacle with which such apparatus may be connected and used, and for the effectual flushing and cleansing of such pan, basin, or other receptacle, and for the prompt and effectual removal there from of any solid or liquid filth which may from time to time he deposited therein.

He shall furnish such watercloset with a pan, basin, or other suitable receptacle of non-absorbent material, and of such shape, of such capacity, and of such mode of construction as to receive and contain a sufficient quantity of water, and to allow all filth which may from time to time be deposited in such pan, basin, or receptacle to fail free of the sides thereof, and directly into the water received and contained in such pan, basin, or receptacle.

He’ shall not construct or fix under such pan, basin, or receptacle any "container" or other similar fitting.

He shall not construct or fix in or in connexion with the watercloset apparatus any trap of the kind known as a "D trap."

EARTHCLOSETS.

70. Every person who shall construct an earthcloset in connexion , with a building shall furnish such earthcloset with a reservoir or receptacle, of suitable construction and of adequate capacity, for dry earth or other deodorizing substance, and he shall construct and fix such reservoir or , receptacle in such a manner and in such a position as to admit of ready access to such reservoir or receptacle for the purpose of depositing therein the necessary supply of dry earth or other deodorizing substance.

He shall construct or fix in connexion with such reservoir or receptacle suitable means or apparatus for the frequent and effectual application of a sufficient quantity of dry earth or other deodorizing substance to any I which may from time to time be deposited in any pan, pit, or other receptacle for filth constructed, fitted, or used in or in connexion with such earthcloset.

71. Every person who shall construct an earthcloset in connexion with a building, and shall provide in or in connexion with such earthcloset a fixed receptacle for filth, shall construct or fix such receptacle in such a manner and in such a position as to admit of the frequent and effectual application of a sufficient quantity of dry earth or other deodorizing substance to any filth which may from time to time be deposited in such receptacle, and in such a manner and in such a position as to admit of ready access to such receptacle for the purpose of removing the contents thereof.

He shall not construct such receptacle of a capacity greater than may be sufficient to contain such filth and dry earth or other deodorizing substance as may be deposited therein during a period not exceeding three months, or in any case of a capacity exceeding 40 cubic feet.

He shall construct such receptacle of such material or materials, and in such a manner, as to prevent any absorption by any part of such receptacle of any filth deposited therein, or any escape, by leakage or otherwise, of any part of the contents of such receptacle.

He shall construct or fix such receptacle so that the bottom or floor thereof shall be at least 3 inches above the level of the surface of the ground immediately adjoining the earthcloset, and so that the contents of such receptacle may not at any time be exposed to any rainfall or to the drainage of any waste water or liquid refuse from any adjoining premises.

72. Every person who shall construct an earthcloset in connexion with a building, and shall provide in or in connexion with such earthcloset a movable receptacle for filth, shall construct such earthcloset so that the position and mode of fitting of such receptacle may admit of the frequent and effectual application of a sufficient quantity of dry earth or other deodorizing substance to any filth which may from time to time be deposited in such receptacle, and may also admit of ready access to that part of the earthcloset in which such receptacle may be placed or fitted, and of the convenient removal of such receptacle or of the contents thereof.

He shall also construct such earthcloset so that the contents of such receptacle may not at any time be exposed to any rainfall or to the drainage of any waste water or liquid refuse from any adjoining premises.

PRIVIES.

73. Every person who shall construct a privy in connexion with a building shall construct such privy at a distance of 6 feet at the least from, a dwelling or public building, or any building in which any person may be or may be intended to be employed in any manufacture, trade, or business.

74. A person who shall construct a privy in connexion with a building shall not construct such privy within the distance of 30 feet from any well, spring, or stream of water used, or likely to be used by man for drinking or domestic purposes, or for manufacturing drinks for the use of man, or otherwise in such a position as to render any such water liable to pollution.

75. Every person who shall construct a privy in connexion with a building shall construct such privy in such a manner and in such a position as to afford ready means of access to such privy, for the purpose of cleansing such privy and of removing filth therefrom, and in such a manner and in such a position as to admit of all filth being removed from such privy, and from the premises to which such privy may belong, without being carried through any dwelling-house or public building, or any building in which any person may be, or may be intended to be employed in any manufacture, trade, or business.

76. Every per who shall construct a privy in connexion with a building shall provide such privy with a sufficient opening for ventilation, as near to the top as practicable, and communicating directly with the external air.

He shall cause the floor of such privy to be flagged or paved with hard tiles or other non-absorbent material, and he shall construct such floor so that it shall be in every part thereof at a height of not less than 6 inches above the level of the surface of the ground adjoining such privy, and so that such floor shall have a or inclination towards the door of such privy of half an inch to the foot.

77. Every person who shall construct a privy in connexion with a building, and shall construct such privy for use in combination with a movable receptacle for filth, shall construct over the whole area of the space immediately beneath the seat of such privy a flagged or asphalted floor, at a height of not less than 3 inches above the level of the surface of the ground adjoining such privy; and he shall cause the whole extent of each side of such space between the floor and the seat to be constructed of flagging, slate, or good brickwork, at least 9 inches thick, and rendered in good cement or asphalted.

He shall construct the seat of such privy, the aperture in such seat, and the space beneath such seat, of such dimensions as to admit of a movable receptacle for filth of a capacity not exceeding 2 cubic feet being placed and fitted beneath such seat in such a manner and in such a position as may effectually prevent the deposit, upon the floor or sides of the space beneath such seat or elsewhere than in such receptacle, of any filth which may from time to time fall or be cast through the aperture in such seat.

He shall construct the seat of such privy so that the whole of such seat, or a sufficient part: thereof, may be readily removed or adjusted in such a manner as to afford adequate access to the space beneath such seat for the purpose of cleansing such space, or of removing therefrom or placing and fitting therein the appropriate receptacle for filth.

78. Every person who shall construct a privy in connexion with a building, and shall construct such privy for use in combination with a fixed receptacle for filth, shall construct or fix in, or in connexion with such privy suitable means or apparatus for the frequent and effectual application of ashes, dust, or dry refuse t any filth which may from time to time be deposited in such receptacle.

He shall construct such receptacle so that the contents thereof may not at any time be exposed to any rainfall or the drainage of any waste water or liquid refuse from any adjoining premises.

He shall construct such receptacle of such material or materials and in such a manner as to prevent any absorption by any part of such receptacle of any filth deposited therein or any escape, by leakage or otherwise, of any part of the contents of such receptacle.

He shall construct such receptacle so that the bottom or floor thereof shall be in every part at least 3 inches above the level of the surface of the ground adjoining such receptacle.

He shall not in any case construct such receptacle of a capacity exceeding 8 cubic feet.

He shall construct the seat of such privy so that the whole of such seat, or a sufficient part thereof may be readily removed or adjusted in such a manner as to afford adequate access to such receptacle for the purpose of removing the contents thereof; and of cleansing such receptacle, or shall otherwise provide in or in connexion with such privy adequate means of access to such receptacle for the purpose aforesaid.

79. A person who shall construct a privy in connexion with a building shall not cause or suffer any part of the space under the seat of such privy, or any part of any receptacle for filth in or in connexion with such privy to communicate with any drain.

ASHPITS.

80. Every person who shall construct an ashpit in connexion with a building shall construct such ashpit at a distance of 6 feet at the least from a dwelling-house or public building, or any building in which any person may be, or may be intended to be employed in any manufacture, trade, or business.

81. A person who shall construct an ashpit in connexion with a building shall not construct such ashpit within the distance of 20 feet from any well, spring, or stream of water used, or likely to be used by man for drinking or domestic purposes, or for manufacturing drinks for the use of man, or otherwise in such a position as to render any such water liable to pollution.

82. Every person who shall construct an ashpit in connexion with a building shall construct such ashpit in such a manner and in such a position as to afford ready means of access to such ashpit for the purpose of cleansing such ashpit, and of removing the contents thereof, and, so far as may be practicable, in such a manner and in such a position as to admit of the contents of such ashpit being removed therefrom, and from the premises to which such ashpit may belong, without being carried through any dwelling-house or public building, or any building in which any person may be, or may be intended to be employed in any manufacture, trade, or business.

83. Every person who shall construct an ashpit in connexion with a building shall construct such ashpit of a capacity not exceeding in any case 6 cubic feet, or of such less capacity as may be sufficient to contain all dust, ashes, rubbish, and dry refuse which may accumulate during a period not exceeding one week upon the premises to which such ashpit may belong.

84. Every person who shall construct an ashpit in connexion with a building shall construct such ashpit of flagging, or of slate, or of good brickwork, at least 9 inches thick, and rendered inside with good cement or properly asphalted.

He shall construct such ashpit so that the floor thereof shall be at a height of not less than 3 inches above the surface of the ground adjoining such ashpit, and he shall cause such floor to be properly flagged or asphalted.

He shall cause such ashpit to be properly roofed over and ventilated, and to be furnished with a suitable door in such a position and so constructed and fitted as to admit of the convenient removal of the contents of such ashpit, and to admit of being securely closed and fastened for the effectual prevention of the escape of any of the contents of such ashpit.

85. A person who shall construct an ashpit in connexion with a building shall not cause or suffer any part of such ashpit to communicate with any drain.

CESSPOOLS.

86. Every person who shall construct a cesspool in connexion with a building shall construct such cesspool at a distance of 50 feet at the least from a dwelling-house or public building, or any building in which any person may be, or may be intended to be employed in any manufacture, trade, or business.

87. A person who shall construct a cesspool in connexion with a building shall not construct such cesspool within the distance of 80 feet from any well, spring, or stream of water used, or likely to be used by man for drinking or domestic purposes, or for manufacturing drinks for the use of man, or otherwise in such a position as to render any such water liable to pollution.

88. Every person who shall construct a cesspool in connexion with a building shall construct such cesspool in such a manner and in such a position as to afford ready means of access to such cesspool for the purpose of cleansing such cesspool, and of removing the contents thereof, and in such a manner and in such a position as to admit of the contents of such cesspool being removed therefrom, and from the premises to which such cesspool may belong, without being carried through any dwelling-house or public building, or any building in which any person may be, or may be intended to be employed in any manufacture, trade, or business.

He shall not in any case construct such cesspool so that it shall have, by drain or otherwise, any outlet into or means of communication with any sewer.

89. Every person who shall construct a cesspool in connexion with a building shall construct such cesspool of good brickwork in cement properly rendered inside with cement, and with a backing of at least 9 inches of well puddled clay around and beneath such brickwork.

He shall also cause such cesspool to be arched or otherwise properly covered over, and to be provided with adequate means of ventilation.

With respect to the closing of buildings or parts of buildings unfit for human habitation, and to prohibit of their use for such habitation.

90. In every case:

Where, by a notice in writing in the form hereunto appended, or to the like effect, and signed by the clerk to the Sanitary Authority, and duly upon or delivered to the owner of a building or part of a building erected after the date of the confirmation of these bye-laws, the Sanitary Authority shall certify that it has been represented to them that such building or part of a building is unfit for human habitation, and that, unless on or before such day as shall be specified in such notice, such owner, by a statement in writing under his hand or under the hand of his agent duly authorized in that behalf and addressed to and duly served upon or delivered to the Sanitary Authority, shall show sufficient cause why such building or part of a building shall not be declared unfit for human habitation, or unless, on such day and at such time and place as shall be specified in such notice, such owner personally or by his agent duly authorized in that behalf shall attend before the Sanitary Authority and show sufficient cause why such building or part of a building shall not be declared unfit for human habitation, the Sanitary Authority will declare such building or part of a building unfit for human habitation, and direct that such building or part of a building shall be closed, and prohibit the use for human habitation of such building or part of a building until the same shall have been rendered fit for human habitation:

And where such owner shall fail to show sufficient cause why such building or part of a building shall not be declared unfit for human habitation, and where, in consequence of such failure, the Sanitary Authority by their order, which shall be in writing under their seal in the form hereunto appended, or to the like effect, and shall be duly signed by their clerk, and which, or a copy of which shall be affixed in some conspicuous position in or upon such. building or part of a building, may declare that such building or part of a building is unfit for human habitation, and may direct that, unless and until such building or part of a building shall have been rendered fit for human habitation, the same shall be closed, and the use thereof for human habitation shall be prohibited:-

A person shall not, after the date specified in such order and before such building or part of a building shall have been rendered fit for human habitation, knowingly inhabit or continue to inhabit, or knowingly cause or suffer to be inhabited such building or part of a building.

FORM OF NOTICE.

DISTRICT OF RISHTON.

To ...                                     of

WHEREAS by a statement in writing under the hand of

Medical Officer of Health

(or Surveyor) of the Sanitary Authority for the district of Rishton, of which statement a copy is contained in the schedule hereunto annexed, it has been certified to the said Sanitary Authority that a certain building or part of a building situate at

in the said district is unfit for human habitation;

And whereas it has been shown to the said Sanitary Authority that you are the owner of such building or part of a building;

Now, I, , clerk to the

said Sanitary Authority, do hereby give you notice that, unless on

or before the day of 18

by a statement in writing under your hand or under the hand of an agent duly authorized by you in that behalf; and addressed to and duly served upon or delivered to the said Sanitary Authority, you shall show to the said Sanitary Authority sufficient cause why such building or part of a building shall not be declared unfit for human habitation:

Or, unless you shall attend either personally or by an agent duly authorised in that behalf before the said Sanitary Authority at their office in day

the day of 18 , at

o’clock in the noon, and shall then and there show to the said Sanitary Authority sufficient cause why such building or part of a building shall not be declared unfit for human habitation;

The said Sanitary Authority, in pursuance of the powers conferred Upon them in that behalf, will, by an order in writing under their seal, declare that such building or part of a building is unfit for human habitation, and direct that, unless and until such building or part of a building shall have been rendered fit for human habitation, the same shall be closed, and the use thereof for human habitation shall be prohibited.

Witness my hand this day of

in the year one thousand eight hundred and

Clerk to the Sanitary Authority.

SCHEDULE.

COPY OF CERTIFICATE.

FORM OF ORDER.

DISTRICT OF RISHTON.

To ,                            of ,                                                        and

to all others whom it may concern;

WHEREAS it has been certified to us, the Sanitary Authority for the district of Rishton, that a certain building or part of a building situate at

in the said district is unfit for human habitation;

And whereas due notice of such certificate has been given to the owner of such building or part of a building, and the said has failed to show sufficient cause why such building or part of a building shall not be declared unfit for human habitation;

Now we, the said Sanitary Authority, in pursuance of the power conferred upon us in that behalf, do hereby declare that such building or part of a building is unfit for human habitation and we do hereby direct that, unless and until such building or part of a building shall have been rendered fit for human habitation, the same shall be closed, and the use thereof for human habitation shall be prohibited. ,

Given under the common seal of the Sanitary Authority for the district of Rishton, this

( L. S.) day of , in the year one thousand eight hundred and

Clerk to the Sanitary Authority.

As to the giving of notices, deposit of plans and sections by persons intending to lay out streets or to construct buildings; as to inspection by the Sanitary Authority; and as to the power of such Authority; to remove, alter, or pull down any work begun or done in contravention of the bye-laws.

91. Every person who shall intend to lay out a street shall give to the Sanitary Authority notice in writing of such intention, which shall be delivered or sent to their clerk at his or their office, or to their surveyor at his or their office, and shall at the same time deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to their clerk at his or their office, or to their surveyor at his or their office, a plan and sections of such intended street, drawn to a scale of not less than 1 inch to every 44 feet.

Such person shall show on every such plan the names of the owners of the land through or over which such street shall be intended to pass, the intended level and width, the points of the compass, the intended mode of construction, the intended name of such street, and its intended position in relation to the streets nearest thereto, the size and number of the intended building lots, and the intended sites, height, class and nature of the buildings to be erected therein, and the intended height of the division and fence wails hereon, and the name and address of the person intending to lay out such street.

Such person shall sign such plan, or cause the same to be signed by his duly authorised agent.

Such person shall show on every such section the levels of the present surface of the ground above some known datum, ‘the intended level and rate or rates of inclination of the intended street, the level and inclinations of the streets with which it is intended that such street shall be connected, and the intended level of the lowest floors of the intended buildings.

92. Every person who shall intend to erect a building shall give to the Sanitary Authority notice in writing of such intention, which shall be delivered or sent to their clerk at his or their office, or to their surveyor at his or their office, and shall at the same time deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to their clerk at his or their office, or to their surveyor at his or their office complete plans and sections of every floor of such intended building, which shall be drawn to a scale of not less than 1 inch to every 8 feet, and shall show the position, form and dimensions of the several parts of such building, and of every watercloset, earthcloset, privy, ashpit, cesspool, well, and all other appurtenances.

Such person shall at the same time deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to the clerk to the Sanitary Authority at his or their office, or to their surveyor at his or their office, a description in writing of the materials of which it is intended that such building shall be constructed, and of the intended mode of drainage and means of water supply.

Such person shall at the same time deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to the clerk to the Sanitary Authority at his or their office, or to their surveyor at his or their office, a block plan of such building which shall be drawn to a scale of not less than 1 inch to every 44 feet, and shall show the position of the buildings and appurtenances of the properties immediately adjoining, the width and level of the street in front and of the street, if any, at the rear of such building, the level of the lowest floor of such building, and of any yard or ground belonging thereto.

Such person shall likewise show on such plan the intended lines of drainage of such building, and the intended size, depth and inclination of each drain; and the details of the arrangement proposed to be adopted for the ventilation of the drains.

INSPECTION OF NEW STREETS AND BUILDINGS.

93. Every person who shall intend to lay out or construct a street, or to erect a building, or otherwise to execute any work to which any of the bye-laws relating to new streets and buildings may apply, shall before beginning to lay out or construct such Street, or to erect such building, or to execute such work, deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to the surveyor of the Sanitary Authority at his or their office notice in writing, in which shall be specified the date on which such person will begin to lay out or construct such street, or to erect such building, or to execute such work.

Such person shall also, before proceeding to cover up any sewer or drain, or any foundation of a building. deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to the surveyor of the Sanitary Authority at his or their office notice in writing, in which shall be specified the date on which such person will proceed to cover up such sewer, drain, or foundation.

If such person neglect or refuse to deliver or send any such notice, or to cause any such notice to be delivered or sent to such surveyor, and if such surveyor, on inspecting any work in connexion with such street or building, or such other work as afore said, finds that such work is so far advanced that he cannot ascertain whether anything required by any bye-law relating to new streets or building has been done contrary to such bye-law, or whether anything required by such bye-law to be done has been omitted to be done, and if, within a reasonable time after such survey or inspection, such person shall, by notice in writing under the hand of such surveyor, be required, within a reasonable time which shall be specified in such notice, to cause so much of such work as prevents such surveyor from ascertaining whether anything has been done or omitted to be done as aforesaid to be cut into, laid open, or pulled down to a sufficient extent to enable such surveyor to ascertain whether anything has been done or omitted to be done as aforesaid, such person shall within the time specified in such notice cause such work to be so cut into, laid open, or pulled down.

94. In every case: Where a person who shall lay out or construct a street, or shall

erect a building, or shall execute any other work to which the bye- laws relating to new streets and buildings may apply, shall, at any reasonable time during the progress or after the completion of the laying out or construction of such street, or the erection of such building, or the execution of such work, receive from the surveyor of the Sanitary Authority notice in writing specifying any matters in respect of which the laying out or construction of such street, the erection of such building, or the execution of such work may be in contravention of any bye-law relating to new streets or buildings, and requiring such person within a reasonable time, which shall be specified in such notice, to cause anything done contrary to any such bye-law to be amended, or to do anything which by any such bye-law may be required to be done but which has been omitted to be done.

Such person shall, within the time specified in such notice, comply with the several requirements thereof so far as such requirements relate to matters in respect of which the laying out or construction of such street, the erection of such building, or the execution of such work may be in contravention of any such bye-law.

Such person, within a reasonable time after the completion of any work which may have been executed in accordance with any such requirement, shall deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to the Surveyor of the Sanitary Authority at his or their office notice in writing of the completion of such work, and shall, at all reasonable times within a period of fourteen days after such notice shall have been so delivered or sent, afford such Surveyor free access to such work for the purpose of inspection.

95. Every person who shall lay out or construct a street or shall erect a building, or shall execute any other work to which any of the bye-laws relating to new streets and buildings shall apply, shall, at all reasonable times, during the laying out or construction of such street, or the erection of such building, or the execution of such work, afford the Surveyor of the Sanitary Authority free access to such street, building, or work for the purpose of inspection.

96. Every person who shall lay out or construct a street shall, within a reasonable time after the completion of the laying out or construction of such street, deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to the Surveyor of the Sanitary Authority, at his or their office, notice in writing of the completion of the laying out or construction of such street, and shall, at all reasonable times, within a period of fourteen days after such notice shall have been so delivered or sent, afford such Surveyor free access to such street for the purpose of inspection.

97. Every person who shall erect a building shall, within a reasonable time after the completion of the erection of such building, deliver or send, or cause to be delivered or sent to the Surveyor of the Sanitary Authority, at his or their office, notice in writing of the completion of the erection of such building, and shall, at all reasonable times, within a period of fourteen days after such notice shall have been so delivered or sent, and before such building shall be occupied, afford such Surveyor free access to every part of such building for the purpose of inspection.

PENALTIES.

98. Every person who shall offend against any of the foregoing bye-laws shall be liable for every such offence to a penalty of 5 and in the case of a continuing offence to a further penalty of 40/- for each day after written notice of the offence from the Sanitary Authority.

Provided, nevertheless, that the justices or court before whom any complaint may be made or any proceedings may be taken in respect of any such offence may, if they think fit, adjudge the payment as a penalty of any sum less than the full amount of the penalty imposed by this bye-law.

POWER OF SANITARY AUTHORITY TO REMOVE, ALTER, OR PULL DOWN WORK BEGUN OR DONE IN CONTRAVENTION OF BYE-LAWS.

99. If any work to which any of the bye-laws relating to new streets and buildings may apply be begun or done in contravention of any such bye-law, the person by whom such work shall be so begun or done, by a notice in writing, which shall be signed by the Clerk to the Sanitary Authority, and shall be duly served upon or delivered to such person, shall be required on or before such day as shall be specified in such notice by a statement in writing under his hand or under the hand of an agent duly authorized in that behalf, and addressed to and duly served upon the Sanitary Authority, to show sufficient cause why such work shall not be removed, altered, or pulled down; or shall be required on such day and at such time and place as shall be specified in such notice to attend personally or by an agent duly authorised in that behalf before the Sanitary Authority and show sufficient cause why such work shall not be removed, altered, or pulled down.

If such person shall fail to show sufficient cause why such work shall not be removed altered, or pulled down, the Sanitary Authority shall be empowered, subject to any statutory provision in that behalf, to remove, alter, or pull down such work.

Passed under the Common Seal of the Local Board of the District of Rishton, in the County of Lancaster, acting as the Urban Sanitary Authority, at a Meeting of the Local Board held on the Nineteenth day of December, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eighty-three.

JASPER I. HELM, clerk.

JAMES HANSON, chairman.

Allowed by the Local Government Board, this Twenty-ninth day of April 1884.

CHARLES W. DILKE, President

HUGH OWEN, Secretary.